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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics in Geology

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The four fundamental laws of thermodynamics express empirical facts and define physical quantities such as temperature, heat, thermodynamic work, and entropy, which characterize thermodynamic processes and thermodynamic systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. They describe the relationships between these quantities and form a basis for excluding the possibility of certain phenomena such as the perpetual motion machine. In addition to their use in thermodynamics, the laws find interdisciplinary applications in physics and chemistry. Traditionally, thermodynamics has established three fundamental laws: the first law, the second law, and the third law. [1] [2] [3] A more fundamental statement was later called the “zero law.” The law of conservation of mass is also an equally fundamental concept in the theory of thermodynamics, but it is not generally considered a law of thermodynamics. The zero law of thermodynamics states that if system (or object) A is in thermal equilibrium with system (or object) B and is also in thermal equilibrium with system (or object) C, then B and C must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Thermal equilibrium occurs when two systems or objects do not have heat flow between them, even if they are connected by a heat-permeable path. This happens in real life when two objects have the same temperature. The zero law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in equilibrium with each other. Thermal equilibrium means that when two bodies are brought into contact with each other and separated by a heat-permeable barrier, there is no heat transfer from one to the other. The combination of these principles leads to a traditional statement of the first law of thermodynamics: it is not possible to build a machine that constantly produces work without providing the same amount of energy to that machine.

Or shorter: a perpetual motion machine of the first type is impossible. Well, heat always spontaneously transfers from warm places to cold places. It turns out that this is a way of formulating the 1st law of thermodynamics. However, this means that both objects or systems must be at the same temperature so that heat does not circulate when it can. The following sections will describe the laws of thermodynamics, with particular emphasis on the zero law, its historical context, examples, and its meaning. While this version of the law is one of the most frequently cited versions, it is only one of many statements called “Law Zero.” Some statements go further to provide the important physical fact that temperature is one-dimensional and that bodies can be arranged conceptually in a real sequence of numbers from coldest to warmest. [5] [6] [7] This lesson was about the zero law of thermodynamics. It is the zero law because it was developed after the first, second and third and at the same time was crucial to understand the previous one. The zero law states that if two systems are each in thermal equilibrium (same temperature) with a third system, the two initial systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other. David McKee, a professor of physics at Missouri Southern State University, told Live Science that the zero law states that “the temperature of two systems is the only thing you need to know to determine which direction heat flows between them.” These concepts of temperature and thermal equilibrium are fundamental to thermodynamics and were clearly formulated in the nineteenth century. The name “zero law” was coined by Ralph H. Fowler in the 1930s, long after the first, second, and third laws were widely recognized.

The law allows the definition of temperature in a non-circular way without reference to entropy, its conjugate variable. Such a definition of temperature is called “empirical”. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Some everyday examples illustrating the zero law of thermodynamics are: The field of research now called thermodynamics was developed at the beginning of the {eq}19^{th} {/eq} century. At that time, little was known about the properties of matter at the atomic and molecular level. As a result, scientists had to rely on observations at the macro level. These mainly concerned work, pressure, temperature and energy conversions. These observations first led scientists to develop the first, second and third laws of thermodynamics. One of the effects of these laws was the assertion of the impossibility of developing an ideal machine – a popular idea that consisted of building a machine that, having received a certain amount of energy to start, would operate indefinitely without the need for additional energy. The laws that produced these consequences were: like all good debaters, we define our terms. Without defining what we mean by temperature, the other laws of thermodynamics lose their meaning.

We show that temperature is a property of a substance that is constant from one substance to another. We agree that this is the kind of temperature from which we will all discuss thermodynamics. And so, while it`s simple, it`s the most important law of all. When the zero law was conceived in the 18th century, there were already two laws of thermodynamics. However, this new law, which introduced a formal definition of temperature, replaced existing laws and should rightly top the list, according to OpenStax (opens in a new window), an educational organization at Rice University. This led to a dilemma: the original laws were already well known by their assigned numbers, and the renumbering would create a conflict with the existing literature and cause considerable confusion. A scientist, Ralph H. Fowler (opens in a new window), found a solution to the dilemma: he called the new law the “zero law”. (Cambridge University Press, 1939). (Interestingly, science fiction author Isaac Asimov appropriated the idea of a zero law in his 1985 novel “Robots and Empire (opens in new tab)” when he realized he had to add a new law to the Three Laws of Robotics (opens in a new window) that replaced the First Law.) With the three laws, the need for a law formalizing the concept of temperature became obvious.

Since the concept of temperature is fundamental to understanding all the laws of thermodynamics, the British mathematician Ralph H.